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Meningococcal Disease & The Vaccine, What You Need To Know

I’m writing this blog today because my daughter recently turned 18 and her doctor tried to use scare tactics to get her to consent to the vaccine. Thank God I educated my daughter about vaccine dangers and she said no.BUT, not without confrontation from her doctor. I told my daughter I had a business call to make and that I would be waiting in the lobby, she was there for her annual check up.  Moments later I get a phone call from my daughter saying “Mom, they are about to give me a meningitis shot” I said ” WHAT!!! NO, NO, NO, DO NOT LET THEM DO THAT!!!” She said “I know mom, come, hurry up.” I sprinted through those hallways SO FAST, almost running lol to find the room my daughter was in. When I got there, the doctor had left to get her assistant to give the shot. I told my daughter that she needed to tell them HERSELF that she did not want the shot. When the lady came back into the room, my daughter told her that she did not want the shot, she thought the doctor was only telling her about the shot, she never said she wanted the shot. That was no problem, the lady said ok and left but then we heard her tell the doctor and the doctor came in and asked why. We told her that vaccine risks are far too high and that the likeliness of her getting the disease were very low and not worth the risk involved. She asked, “What are your reliable sources, the CDC blah blah blah….? I said the CDC, that is a joke, I don’t care what they say about it, they do not have the best interest of the people, I don’t have to give you a reason why, we said no and that’s it!! She said “Well then she will have to sign a refusal form and she may have a hard time getting into college.” Prior to that, before my daughter called me into the room, my daughter said the doctor told her that her arm could turn black and fall off. Which this can be a symptom of the disease but the likeliness of this happening is so low.
Today, pediatricians give American babies as many as 33 doses of 13 different vaccines by 12 months of age.1, 2 Now, federal public health officials are considering recommending that doctors give four more doses of a new vaccine – meningococcal vaccine – to babies between two and 12 months old3,4 in addition to the two doses children already get at 11 and 16 years old.5
 
There are big questions about the necessity, effectiveness, safety and cost of this new proposed change to the child vaccination schedule.
Meningococcal Disease Rare in the U.S.
 
Invasive Neisseria meningococcal disease is a bacterial infection that involves inflammation of the meninges of the brain and can lead to a serious blood infection. It is very rare in the United States. In our population of 308 million, there are between 1400 and 3000 cases every year that fluctuate with natural cycles.6 Between 10 and 15% of the cases are fatal with another 10 to 20% ending with brain damage or loss of limbs.
Children Under Age Two Less Likely To Die
 
It is estimated that, annually, there are between 150 and 300 meningococcal deaths in the U.S.,7 with an average of 16 babies under age 12 months dying from the disease8 Children under age two are less likely to die from meningococcal infection compared to older age groups.9
 
Incidence in U.S. Has Decreased to Historic Lows
 
The good news is that the incidence of the disease has decreased more than 60 percent between 1998 and 2007 to less than 1 case in 100,000 people, which is an historic low in the U.S.10 To put this death rate into context, there are three times as many Americans, who die from heat stroke11 or drown in boating accidents12 every year than die from invasive meningococcal disease.
Maternal Antibodies, Natural Immunity Protects Majority
 
That is because mothers, who have innate immunity, transfer maternal antibodies to their newborns to protect them in the first few months of life until babies can make their own antibodies.13 At any given time up 20 to 40 percent of us are asymptomatically colonizing meningococcal organisms in our nasal passages and throats, which throughout life boosts our innate immunity to invasive bacterial infection.14, 15 By the time American children enter adolescence, the vast majority have asymptomatically developed immunity that protects them, which is how our population maintains naturally acquired herd immunity and why cases of invasive disease are so rare in all age groups.
Genetically Vulnerable At High Risk for Disease
 
However, a tiny minority of individuals have genetic variations and other unknown biological factors that prevent them from naturally developing protective circulating antibodies.16 These are the individuals, tragically, who are up to 7,000 times more likely to get severe invasive meningococcal disease at some point in their lives.17 Clearly, there must be greater attention paid to developing screening techniques to identify those high-risk individuals and help them avoid a potentially fatal or crippling meningococcal infection.
Environmental High Risk Factors
 
In addition to genetic factors that place some people at higher risk, there are other biological and environmental factors that make people more susceptible. These include smoking or living in a home where people smoke; a recent respiratory infection; crowded living conditions, such as in military and prisons settings; alcohol use; and an underlying chronic illness, especially immune deficiencies such as lupus or HIV/AIDS.18, 19
 
Constant, Close Personal Contact Required
 
It is not easy to develop invasive meningococcal disease.20 You have to be susceptible and have regular close personal contact, such as sharing a toothbrush with or kissing person, who is colonizing meningococcal organisms.
Know Symptoms, Get Immediate Medical Care
 
Symptoms of meningococcal disease include fever; severe headache; painful, stiff neck; nausea and vomiting; inability to look at bright lights; mental confusion and irritability; extreme fatigue/sleepiness; convulsions and unconsciousness.
In babies, signs of “irritability” can include persistent crying or high pitched screaming with arching of the back, which are symptoms of encephalitis or brain inflammation that can be caused by a bacterial or viral infection or a vaccine reaction.21 These are danger signs and it is very important to seek immediate medical attention and treatment to help prevent permanent injury or death.
Vaccine Has Only 4 Strains
 
In 2000, the CDC recommended that all college freshmen get a dose of meningococcal vaccine containing four strains (A, C, W-35, Y)22 and, in 2005, that policy was expanded to include all 11 year olds.23 There is one problem: the vaccine does not contain strain B, which is the strain associated with more than 50 percent of meningococcal cases and deaths,24 especially in children under five years old.25
 
Vaccine Effectiveness Does Not Last, Need Booster
 
There is another problem: The vaccine has been found to be, at best, only about 58 percent effective within two to five years after adolescents have gotten the shot.26, 27 So, in 2011, when public health officials realized that one dose of meningococcal vaccine did not last, they said that all 16 year olds should get a booster dose.
Vaccine Costs $90 Or More Per Dose
 
There is another problem: one dose of meningococcal vaccine costs about $9028 or more.
The health care price tag to give four doses of meningococcal vaccine to all four million babies born every year in the U.S. costs a whopping $1.4 billion dollars per year. Plus two more doses for all 11 and 16 year olds adds on another nearly $1 billion dollars.
Vaccine Reactions Add to Vaccine Cost
 
There is another problem. The health care cost to the American taxpayer does not end with the outlay of cash to pay for 6 doses of the vaccine for every child. What about the unacknowledged health care costs to treat the children, who suffer a vaccine reaction that leads to a trip to the ER or hospitalization or permanent brain and immune system problems?
Vaccine Reaction Injuries & Deaths Reported
 
The manufacturer product inserts for meningococcal vaccine list the following adverse events reported during clinical trials or post licensure: irritability, abnormal crying, fever, drowsiness, fatigue, injection site pain and swelling, sudden loss of consciousness (syncope), diarrhea, headache, joint pain, Guillain Barre Syndrome, brain inflammation, convulsions, and facial palsy.29, 30, 31
 
The federal Vaccine Adverse Events Reporting System (VAERS), which includes only a small fraction of the health problems that occur after vaccination in the U.S.,32, 33 has recorded more than 2,000 serious health problems, hospitalizations and injuries following meningococcal shots, including 33 deaths with half of the deaths occurring in children under age six.34
 
Limited or No Data on Giving Vaccine With Other Vaccines
 
There is very limited or no data on the safety and effectiveness of giving meningococcal vaccines with other vaccines at the same time.35 In 2007, the National Vaccine Information Center reported an increase in serious adverse event reports to VAERS when meningococcal vaccine was given simultaneously with HPV vaccine to young girls.36, 37
 
States & Colleges Already Mandated Vaccine to Attend School
 
Ten states have already made meningococcal shots mandatory to attend junior high school and 32 states require the shot for college freshman.38, 39 If the CDC recommends all babies and children get an additional four meningococcal shots, drug companies and medical organizations financially connected to the pharmaceutical industry40 will certainly lobby state legislatures to legally require the vaccine for all children attending day care centers and schools.
Are Vaccine Companies Pressuring Government?
 
Question: Why is the government bowing to pressure from drug companies to recommend and mandate that all American babies get four doses of a very expensive meningococcal vaccine that has big problems with effectiveness, especially when naturally acquired herd immunity is already doing such a good job of controlling the disease in the U.S.?
Trading Natural Herd Immunity for Temporary Vaccine Immunity
 
By mandating that every American use meningococcal vaccine from infancy, we will be trading the natural herd immunity our population has achieved for inferior vaccine acquired immunity that does not last. That will make our population vaccine dependent, which is great news for drug company stockholders, but will it be bad news for our health and the environment?
Creating a Nightmare Scenario?
 
Like with excessive antibiotic use,41, 42 we just might be creating a nightmare scenario for meningococcal organisms to mutate into more lethal vaccine resistant bugs43, 44, 45 that will have all of us highly susceptible to invasive meningococcal infection and wishing we had taken the precautionary principle46 much more seriously.
Bottom line: Meningococcal vaccine is available and can be used by anyone who wants to use it, but there is no reason for government to recommend and schools to mandate the shots for everyone.
 
Learn More About Disease & Vaccine
 
Learn more about meningococcal disease and the vaccine atwww.NVIC.org and find out what you can do to protect your right to make informed, voluntary vaccine choices in America.

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References:


[1] Centers for Disease Control. Recommended Immunization Schedule for Persons 0 through 6 Years. United States. 2011.
[2] NVIC. 49 Doses of 14 Vaccines By Age 6?
[3] Lakely J. Health Care Reporters: CDC to Pull Plug on Meningitis Vaccine Over Cost? The Heartland Institute. May 24, 2011.
[4] Ostrom CM. The Seattle Times. Meningitis Vaccine Debated at CDC Forum. July 13, 2011.
[5] Centers for Disease Control. Recommended Immunization Schedule for Persons 7 Through 18 years – United States. 2011.
[6] AAP Committee on Infectious Diseases. Prevention and Control of Meningococcal Disease: Recommendations for Use of Meningococcal Vaccines in Pediatric Patients.Pediatrics August 1, 2005; 116(2): 495-505.
[7] American College Health Association. Press Release: ACHA Issues New Meningococcal Disease Immunization Recommendations for First Year Students Living in Residence Halls. March 17, 2005.
[8] Cohn A. Meningococcal Disease in Infants and Considerations for use of Conjugate Vaccines. Presentation at the CDC Public Engagement Stakeholders Meeting, Washington, D.C.. May 25, 2011. Slide: Average Annual Deaths and Case-Fatality Ratios by Serogroup and Age, 2001-2010.
[9] Cohn A. Epidemiology of Meningococcal Disease in the U.S. Presentation to the FDA Vaccines & Related Biological Products Advisory Committee (VRBPAC). Transcript of April 6, 2011 Meeting. Pages 50-52.
[10] Cohn AC, MacNeil JR, Harrison LH et al. Changes in Neisseria meningitides Disease Epidemiology in the United States, 1998-2007: Implications for Prevention of Meningococcal Disease. Clinical Infectious Diseases January 15, 2010; 50(2): 184-191.
[11] CDC. Heat-Related Deaths – United States, 1999-2003. MMWR July 28, 2006; 55(29): 796-798.
[12] CDC. Stay Safe While Boating: Know the Facts. May 23, 2011.
[13] FDA. Vaccines & Related Biological Products Advisory Committee. FDA Briefing Document: Use of Serum Bactericidal Antibody As an Immunological Correlate for Demonstration of Effectiveness of Meningococcal Conjugate Vaccines (Serogroup A, C, Y, W-135) Administered to Children Less than 2 Years of Age. April 6, 2011. Pages 3-4.
[14] Tan L KK, Cadone GM, Borrow R. Advances in the development of vaccines against Neisseria meningitidis. NEJM April 22, 2010; 362(16): 1511-1520.
[15] Manchanda V. Gupta S., Bhalla P. Meningococcal Disease: History, Epidemiology, Pathogenesis, Clinical Manifestations, Diagnosis, Antiomicrobial Susceptibility and Prevention. Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology 2006; 24(1): 7-19.
[16] Bille E, Ure R et al. Association of Bacteriophage with Meningococcal Disease in Young Adults. PLOS One 2008; 3(12): e3885.
[17] See Reference # 13.
[18] CDC. Prevention & Control of Meningococcal Disease – Recommendations of ACIP. MMWR May 27, 2005; 50(RR07): 1-21.
[19] See References #10 & 15.
[20] CDC. Meningitis Questions & Answers.
[21] NIH. Encephalitis. PubMed July 26, 2010.
[22] CDC.Meningococcal Disease and College Students. MMWR June 30, 2000; 48(RR07): 11-20.
[23] See Reference #18.
[24] Granoff DM. Review of Meningococcal Group B Vaccines. Clinical Infectious Diseases
2010; 50(Supplement 2): 554-565.
[25] See Reference #9. Page 50.
2011; 305(13): 1291-1293.
[27] See Reference # 9. Pages 55-59.
[28] Tucker M. A Difficult Vaccine Decision. EGMN Notes from the Road. November 2, 2010.
[29] Sanofi-Pasteur. Menactra Product Information Insert. April 22, 2011.
[31] Sanofi Pasteur. Menommune Product Manufacturer Insert. January 2009.
Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health.
[33] Rosenthanl S, Chen R. The reporting sensitivities of two passive surveillance systems for vaccine adverse events. Am J Public Health 1995; 85: pp. 1706-9.
[34] VAERS. MedAlerts database. Reports of health problems, hospitalizations, injuries and deaths following receipt of meningococcal vaccine.
[35] See References #27-29.
[37] Debold V, Downey C, Fisher BL. Human Papilloma Virus Vaccine Safety Analysis of Vaccine Adverse Events Reporting System Reports (VAERS): Part III. NVIC August 15, 2007; Adverse Events & Co-Administration of Vaccines: Pages 15-27.
[38] Immunization Action Coalition. Meningococcal Vaccine Mandates for Elementary and High Schools. June 2, 2011.
[39] Immunization Action Coalition. Meningococcal Vaccine Mandates for Colleges & Universities. June 2, 2011.
[41] FDA. Antimicrobial Resistance. June 30, 2011.
[43] Brueggemann AB, Pai R et al. Vaccine Escape Recombinants Emerge After Pneumococcal Vaccination in the United States. PLOS PathogensNovember 2007; 3(11): e16B.
[46] Science & Environmental Health Network (SEHN). The Wingspread Statement on the Precautionary Principle. January 1998.
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7 Kombucha Health Benefits

What is Kombucha?

Known as the “Immortal Health Elixir” by the Chinese and originating in the Far East around 2,000 years ago, kombucha is a beverage with tremendous health benefits.

Kombucha is a fermented beverage of black tea and cane sugar that is used as a functional food.  Kombucha contains b-vitamins, enzymes, probiotics and a high concentration of acid (acetic, gluconic, and lactic), which have the following effects:

  • Improving Digestion
  • Weight Loss
  • Increasing Energy
  • Cleansing and Detoxification
  • Immune Support
  • Reduces Joint Pain
  • Cancer Prevention

The sugar-tea solution is fermented by bacteria and yeast and is commonly known as aSCOBY (symbiotic colony of bacteria and yeast).

You can make kombucha yourself at home or buy it for $3-5 a bottle at most health food stores and some coffee shops. An article published in the journal Food Microbiology has established that the following probiotics make up this health elixir.

Personally I use Aqua Vita because it’s local and comes on tap with different flavors I can mix. I like to mix the ginger with the turmeric for the health benefits of the ginger and turmeric in addition to the benefits of the kombucha. I refill a gallon jug once a week. For those of you who have never had it, it is fuzzy like soda but do not classify this with soda by any means no, no, no!

AV-Kombucha  kombucha on tap


Beneficial Probiotics in Kombucha 

  • Gluconacetobacter (>85% in most sample)
  • Acetobacter (<2%)
  • Lactobacillus (up to 30% in some samples)
  • Zygosaccharomyces (>95%)

Ultimately, this cocktail of good bacteria interact together in a unique way to produce some unbelievable health benefits for those who drink it.

In the newest research published in the Journal of Medicinal Food 2014, researchers from the University of Latvia say the following about the health benefits of kombucha:

It is shown that [kombucha] can efficiently act in health preservation and recovery due to four main properties: detoxification, anti-oxidation, energizing potencies, and promotion of boosting immunity.

We agree! In fact, according to research there are 5 main health benefits of kombucha.


#1 Detoxification – The detoxifying capacity of kombucha is immense. A perfect example has been observed in its ability to counteract liver cell toxicity.

In one study, the liver cells being evaluated were protected from oxidative injury and actually maintained their normal physiology, in spite of being exposed to the toxin! According to researchers, this was “probably due to its antioxidant activity and could be beneficial against liver diseases, where oxidative stress is known to play a crucial role.”


Digestive system#2 Digestion – Naturally the antioxidant prowess of this ancient tea counteracts free radicals that create mayhem in the digestive system. However, the greatest reason kombucha supports digestion is because of its high levels of beneficial acid, probiotics and enzymes.

Extensive work has even been conducted to test kombucha’s ability to prevent and heal leaky gut and stomach ulcers. No surprise to us, it was proven to be as effective as drugs like Prilosec, which are commonly prescribed for heartburn, GERD, and ulcers.


#3 Energy – Kombucha’s ability to invigorate people has been credited to the formation of iron that is released from the black tea during the fermentation process.  It also contains some caffeine and b-vitamins, which can energize the body.

Through a special process known as chelation, the iron released helps to boost blood hemoglobin, improving oxygen supply to tissues and stimulating the energy producing process at the cellular level. In other words, by helping the body create more energy (ATP), the ancient tea can help those who regularly drink stay energized for extended periods of time.


#4 Immune Health – The overall effect that kombucha has to modulate the immune system is best seen in its ability to control free radicals through unbelievable antioxidant measures.

Clinically proven to decrease oxidative stress and related immune-suppression, a powerful antioxidant known as D-saccharic acid-1, 4-lactone (DSL) has been discovered during the kombucha fermentation process that is not found in black tea alone. Also, we know the probiotics found in kombucha support the immune system.

Scientists suspect that DSL and the Vitamin C present in kombucha are its’ main secrets in protecting against cell damage, inflammatory diseases, tumors and overall depression of the immune system.


Joint Health#5 Joint Care – Kombucha can help heal, repair and prevent joint damage in a number of ways. Kombucha is loaded with glucosamines, which increase synovial hyaluronic acid production. This supports the preservation of collagen and prevents arthritic pain. In the same way it supports joint collagen it can also support collagen of the entire body and reduce the appearance of wrinkles.


#6 Cancer Prevention – Kombucha has also been proven beneficial for cancer prevention and recovery.  A study published in Cancer Letters found that by consuming glucaric acid found in kombucha reduced the risk of cancer in humans.

President Reagan reportedly drank kombucha daily as part of his regimen to battle stomach cancer.


Weight Loss

#7 Weight Loss – Data from a study in 2005 showed evidence that kombucha can improve metabolism and limit fat accumulation.  Though we’ll need to see more studies before we can confirm these results, it makes sense that kombucha supports weight loss since it’s high in acetic acid and polyphenols which have in other studies been proven to increase weight loss.

WARNING, DO YOUR OWN RESEARCH, KOMBUCHA CAN GET CONTAMINATED IF NOT HANDLED PROPERLY WHEN MAKING IT YOURSELF!!!

How to Make Kombucha

Kombucha is simple to make yourself, and because it can be a bit costly to buy bottled kombucha almost every day, we recommend you give it a shot.

Here is a simple recipe for making your own kombucha at home. This recipe makes about 8 cups of kombucha, but you can also double the recipe to make more and you will still only need 1 SCOBY disk.


Kombucha Recipe

kombucha tea

Yields: 8 cups

You will need:

  • 1 large glass/ceramic/metal jar or bowl that has a wide opening. You want to avoid using a plastic jar or bowl because the chemicals in the plastic can leach into the kombucha. Look for a big jug/jar/or bowl online or in large kitchen stores and make sure the opening is wide enough to allow a lot of oxygen to reach the kombucha while it ferments.
  • Either 1 large cheese cloth (which is a cloth that allows air to pass through it) or you can use a thin dish towel
  • 1 SCOBY disk. You will need to purchase a “SCOBY” disk and can find one either in health food stores or online at very inexpensive prices. A SCOBY disk can be vacuumed sealed in a small pouch and shipped directly to your house for only a few dollars, while still preserving all of the active yeast ingredients.
  • 8 cups of water (preferably that is filtered, but don’t people that have used tap water feel this works fine too)
  • 1/2 cup organic cane sugar. *You do not want to substitute this for another kind of sugar, honey, stevia, or anything else. Yes- this is one of the few times we will tell you to use real sugar! Most of it is actually “eaten” by the yeast during the fermentation process, so there is very little sugar actually left in the recipe by the time you will consume it.
  • 4 black tea bags (preferably organic)
  • 1 cup of pre-made kombucha, which you can either buy or use from a previous kombucha batch that you or a friend has made.

Directions:

1. Bring your water to boil in a big pot on the stove top. Once boiling, remove from the heat and add your teabags and sugar, stirring until the sugar dissolves.

2. Allow the pot to sit and the tea to steep for about 15 minutes, then remove and discard tea bags

3. Let the mixture cool down to room temperature (which usually takes about one hour). Once it is cooled, add your tea mixture to your big jar/bowl. Drop in your SCOBY disk and 1 cup of pre-made kombucha.

4. Cover your jar/bowl with your cheese cloth or thin kitchen towel and try to keep the cloth in plate by using a tie. You want the cloth to cover the wide opening of the jar and to stay in place, but to allow air to pass through.

5. Allow to sit for 7-10 days depending on the flavor you’re looking for. Less time will produce a weaker kombucha that tastes less sour, while a longer sitting time will make the kombucha ferment even longer and develop more taste.

Usually the warmer your home is, the less time the kombucha needs to ferment. Taste your kombucha after 7 days to see if it needs more time. If you are happy with the taste, put your kombucha into smaller glass bottles (or whatever type of bottle will fit into your refrigerator) and refrigerate the kombucha for at least 24 hours to allow it to cool and finish carbonating. Once it is cooled, you are ready to drink your homemade kombucha!
*Note that as the fermentation process happens, you will notice that the SCOBY disk “grows” a second SCOBY disk. Many people call the SCOBY that you purchased and used to make the kombucha the “mother” SCOBY, and the second SCOBY that grows the “baby”. The mother SCOBY is located on top of the baby.

You can actually use the newly formed baby SCOBY to create a whole new batch of kombucha, so you don’t want to throw out the baby disk. Store the baby SCOBY in a bit of already-made kombucha in a glass jar while you are not using it, so you have it on hand to start a new batch when you want it (it will stay “active” for several weeks). Throw away the mother SCOBY once your kombucha is finished fermenting.

The recipe above is for a basic unflavored kombucha. You can try adding unique flavors like fresh squeezed lemon or lime juice, ginger root “juice” made by blending ginger and water, blended berries, fresh squeezed orange, pomegranate or cranberry juices, or many other natural and low sugar flavors.


Kombucha Side Effects 

Most people experience great benefits drinking kombucha and have no negative side effects. However there are possible interactions and side effect symptoms to be aware, mostly in populations that already have weakened immune systems and digestive problems:

kombucha

Use caution if you have a weakened immune system-

People who have compromised immunity due to certain viruses like HIV/AIDS will need to be careful about consuming kombucha, since there is always a possibility that the yeast can grow harmful fungus and bacteria that can possibly cause illness. This is especially true of homemade kombucha where contamination is more likely to happen if it’s brewed in an unsanitary environment.

Women who are pregnant or nursing-

While kombucha hasn’t been studied much at all in pregnant women, there is always concern that pregnant women should not consume alcohol or caffeine, both of which are present in kombucha in small amounts. Before more formal research is conducted showing that it’s completely safe, pregnant women are advised to air on the safe side and avoid kombucha.

Those who cannot tolerate even low levels of sugar, caffeine or alcohol-

Kombucha is brewed using black sea and sugar, which when fermented turn into alcohol is very small amounts (only about 1% of kombucha is believed to be alcohol). For people with existing diabetes, kombucha likely won’t cause much of a problem considering it is very low in sugar (about 2 grams per 8 oz.) but it’s worth being careful about and monitoring blood sugar levels and related symptoms. For those with digestive problems like IBS or anxiety disorders, the low level of caffeine in kombucha is also something to be conscious of, since caffeine can sometimes aggravate these conditions.

As you can see kombucha boasts many health benefits and you can even make it yourself for a very low cost, so you always have some kombucha within arm’s reach! So drink up for your health.

Have you ever made or consumed kombucha?  Do you consume it for the health benefits or for the taste?

Personally, I buy my Kombucha from my local health food store and it comes on tap fresh from a Vermont company.  I refill my gallon jug once a week as I noted in the beginning of the article.  I’ll admit, I’m too scared to make it myself.


References: article, Dr. Axe, Food is Medicine

  • American Cancer Society. Kombucha Tea. Available at: http://www.cancer.org
  • Bhattacharya S, et al. Protective effect of kombucha tea against tertiary butyl hydroperoxide induced cytotoxicity and cell death in murine hepatocytes. Indian J. Exp Biol 2011; 49:       511–524.
  • Bhattacharya S, et al. Hepatoprotective properties of kombucha tea against TBHP-induced oxidative stress via suppression of mitochondria dependent apoptosis. Pathophysiology 2011; 18:221–234.
  • Banerjee D, et al. Comparative healing property of kombucha tea and black tea against indomethacin-induced gastric ulceration in mice: possible mechanism of action. Food Funct 2010; 1: 284–293.
  • Danielian LT. Kombucha and Its Biological Features. Meditsina, Moscow, 2005.
  • Dufresne C, et al. Tea, kombucha and health: a review. Food Res Int 2000; 33: 409–421.
  • Fu NF, et al. Clearance of free silica in rat lungs by spraying with chinese herbal kombucha. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med 2013; 2013:790792.
  • Marsh AJ, et al. Sequence-based analysis of the bacterial and fungal compositions of multiple kombucha (tea fungus) samples. Food Microbiol 2014; 38:171-8.
  • Rashid K, et al. An update on oxidative stress-mediated organ pathophysiology. Food Chem Toxicol 2013; 62:584-600
  • Sai Ram M, et al. Effect of kombucha tea on chromate(VI)-induced oxidative stress in albino rats. J Ethnopharmacol 2010; 71: 235– 240.
  •  Vīna I, et al. Current Evidence on Physiological Activity of Kombucha Fermented Beverage and Expected Health Effects. J Med Food 2013; [Epub ahead of print]

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